Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008 Jan;102(2):223-31. Epub 2007 Oct 18. Department of Health and Physical Education, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI, 96720-4091, USA. Muscle power and strength decrease with age leading to reduced independence and increased health risk from falls. Creatine supplementation can increase muscle power and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 7 days of creatine supplementation on body composition, muscular strength, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women. Thirty 58-71 year old women performed three test sessions (T1-T3) each separated by one week. Each session consisted of one repetition maximum tests for bench press and leg press, and isometric hand-grip, tandem gait, upper-body ergometer, and lower-body ergometer tests. Following T2, subjects were assigned to a creatine monohydrate (0.3 g kg body mass(-1) for 7 days) (CR: 63.31 +/- 1.22 year, 160.00 +/- 1.58 cm, 67.11 +/- 4.38 kg) or a placebo (PL: 62.98 +/- 1.11 year, 162.25 +/- 2.09 cm, 67.84 +/- 3.90 kg) supplementation group. CR significantly (P < 0.05) increased bench press (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg), leg press (5.2 +/- 1.8 kg), body mass (0.49 +/- 0.04 kg) and fat free mass (0.52 +/- 0.05) and decreased completion time on the functional tandem gait tests from T2-T3. No significant changes were found for PL on any of the measured variables. No adverse side-effects were reported by either group. Short-term creatine supplementation resulted in an increase in strength, power, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women without any adverse side effects Creatine supplementation during college football training does not increase the incidence of cramping or injury. : Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Feb;244(1-2):83-8.Click here to read Human Performance Laboratory, Department of HPESS, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR, USA. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation on the incidence of injury observed during 3-years of NCAA Division IA college football training and competition. In an open label manner, athletes participating in the 1998-2000 football seasons elected to take creatine or non-creatine containing supplements following workouts/practices. Subjects who decided to take creatine were administered 15.75 g of creatine for 5 days followed by ingesting an average of 5 g/day thereafter administered in 5-10 g doses. Creatine intake was monitored and recorded by research assistants throughout the study and ranged between 34-56% of players during the course of the study. Subjects practiced or played in environmental conditions ranging from 8-40 degrees C (mean 24.7 +/- 9 degrees C) and 19-98% relative humidity (49.3 +/- 17%). Injuries treated by the athletic training staff were recorded and categorized as cramping, heat/dehydration, muscle tightness, muscle strains/pulls, noncontact joint injuries, contact injuries, and illness. The number of missed practices due to injury/illness was also recorded. Data are presented as the total number of treated injuries for creatine users/total injuries observed and percentage occurrence rate of injuries for creatine users for all seasons. The incidence of cramping (37/96, 39%), heat/dehydration (8/28, 36%), muscle tightness (18/42, 43%), muscle pulls/strains (25/51, 49%), non-contact joint injuries (44/132, 33%), contact injuries (39/104, 44%), illness (12/27, 44%), number of missed practices due to injury (19/41, 46%), players lost for the season (3/8, 38%), and total injuries/missed practices (205/529, 39%) were generally lower or proportional to the creatine use rate among players. Creatine supplementation does not appear to increase the incidence of injury or cramping in Division IA college football players. Creatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Feb;33(2):183-8. Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA. PURPOSE: Long-term safety of creatine supplementation has been questioned. This retrospective study was performed to examine markers related to health, the incidence of reported side effects and the perceived training benefits in athletes supplementing with creatine monohydrate. METHODS: Twenty-six athletes (18 M and 8 F, 24.7 +/- 9.2 y; 82.4 +/- 20.0 kg; 176.5 +/- 8.8 cm) from various sports were used as subjects. Blood was collected between 7:00 and 8:30 a.m. after a 12-h fast. Standard clinical examination was performed for CBC and 27 blood chemistries. Testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone were analyzed using an ELISA. Subjects answered a questionnaire on dietary habits, creatine supplementation, medical history, training history, and perceived effects of supplementation. Body mass was measured using a medical scale, body composition was estimated using skinfolds, and resting heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. Subjects were grouped by supplementation length or no use: Gp1 (control) = no use (N = 7; 3 F, 4 M); Gp2 = 0.8-1.0 yr (N = 9; 2 F, 7 M); and Gp3 = 1(+) (N = 10; 3 F, 7 M). RESULTS: Creatine supplementation ranged from 0.8--4 yr. Mean loading dose for Gp2 and Gp3 was 13.7 +/- 10.0 and the maintenance dose was 9.7 +/- 5.7 g.d(-)1. Group differences were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. CONCLUSIONS: Expected gender differences were observed. Of the comparisons made among supplementation groups, only two differences for creatinine and total protein (P < 0.05) were noted. All group means fell within normal clinical ranges. There were no differences in the reported incidence of muscle injury, cramps, or other side effects. These data suggest that long-term creatine supplementation does not result in adverse health effects תהנו.