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הנושא בפורום 'ארכיון' פורסם ע"י קפטן קקי, ‏6/9/08.

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    P-a-n-1-c

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    P-a-n-1-c
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    רק אל תעליב אותי...
    בקיצור זה לא *צונזר**צונזר**צונזר**צונזר**צונזר**צונזר**צונזר**צונזר**צונזר* פה, פה לשם שינוי אמורה להיות רמה, אז לא נוריד אותה :)

    :RockOn: [איזה סמיילים חמודים יש פה]

    *נראה שהמקש עם האות ח' נתקע לך. אנא נקה את המקלדת* איזה צינזור הם הביאו פה לישראל-בודי
     
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    P-a-n-1-c

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    תכלאס הפורום פה על הנייר [כי אני לא יודע מה הולך פה בינתיים], לא רואה את צונזר [חחח צינזרתי מראש].
     
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    Mike

    Mike מנהל אתר | לשעבר Moshe מנהל

    Mike
    מנהל
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    הפורום הזה אולי יבש אבל איכותי , בקרוב יהיו את 2 הדברים יחדיו רק קצת סבלנות , עוד קצת תוכן ומאמרים , ומערכת חדשה שתעלה בקרוב (בבנייה) למאמרים שיהיו יותר מסודרים ויותר מאורגנים.
    סה"כ אני מאמין שתוך שנה מהיום, נהייה בין האתרים המובילים לפיתוח גוף ותזונה ברשת , כמובן שזה נשמע כמו הצהרות של ראש ממשלה וכו' , אבל עם קצת ניסיון בבניית אתרים שיש לאנשים פה מסביב אז יהיה בסדר.
    סה"כ אם הפורום יתפתח המטרה היא לשים פירסומת ובניגוד לאתרים המתחרים אשר לוקחים את הכסף לכיסם , הכסף ילך לבדיקות מעבדה לתוספים ואם זה ילך טוב אפילו נעשה תרומות לבדיקות , אם תקחו 30 אנשים כל אחד יתרום 10 שקל , יש לנו בדיקת מעבדה .... , בקיצור יש הרבה תיכנונים לעתיד זה רק על קצת המזלג.
     
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    Mishel Mishayev

    Mishel Mishayev משתמש משקיע משתמש כבוד

    Mishel Mishayev
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    חברה,בקלפי לשים משה !!!
     
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    אני מצביע מישל:193ek:
     
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    NIRAN

    NIRAN משתמש פעיל

    NIRAN
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    אהבתי תרעיון משה!:161bd:
     
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    3.זמינות של חומצות אמינו במחזור הדם 4.פעילות הורמונאלית של הורמונים רגולטורים ואנטי-רגולטוריים (GH,TSH,ADRENALINE,CORTISOL,IGF 1,2)

    מעניין אותי לשמוע בהרחבה בקשר לסעיפים האלה, מה ההשפעה של דילוג על ארוחה בטווח שעות של 2-4 שעות לפני האימון בקשר לזמינות של חומצות אמינו בדם או פעילות הורמונלית שמצויין למעלה?
     
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    PcGunMan

    PcGunMan משתמש מתחיל

    PcGunMan
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    אתם עושים צחוק או מה?? אין חשיבות לתזמון הארוחות אלה רק לקלוריות בסוף היום:suicide:
    סה"כ הקלריות היומי ותזמון הארוחות זה שני דברים שונים לחלוטין , תזמון הארוחות כדי שכל הזמן ישאר רמת סוכר גבוה בדם ותגיע לאימון בצורה הכי אפקטיבית, וסה"כ קלריות היומי זה משפיע אם אתה עולה במשקל או יורד במשקל או שווה ..אני חושב לפחות מנסיון שלי עם עצמי בלי מחקרים ובלי בטיח אם אני לא אוכל בצורה מסודרת ולפי השעון כל 3 שעות האימון הוא לא אותו אימון ואל תגידו לי מחקרים לא מחקרים :s13::s13:
    אם לא אוכלים מעל 8 שעות מתחיל תהליך פירוק של שריר אז אתם אומרים 12 שעות
     
    נערך לאחרונה ב: ‏21/9/08
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    קפטן קקי
    מציע לך לקרוא שוב לעומק המחקרים ברשת, אין שום בעיה לא לאכול ואני עושה את זה כבר יותר משבועיים ומרגיש מצויין. :s47:
     
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    PcGunMan

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    1) הרגשה לא אומרת כלום!
    2) אני אשמח להסתכל על מחקרים
    3) למרות המחקרים שכביכול מוכיחים את זה אני חושב שזה פחות אפקטיבי! לפחות מנסיון על עצמי באופן אישי
     
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    P-a-n-1-c

    P-a-n-1-c משתמש משקיע

    P-a-n-1-c
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    :cray::cray::cray:


    A recent study led by Stote compared the effects of one meal with three meals per day. It was the first trial of its kind to control calories between randomly assigned groups (17). Curiously, the one-a-day group lost slightly more body weight and body fat and gained a small amount of lean mass. Given those results, it’s heralded in some fitness circles as the long awaited shred of research supporting Ramadan-style (12–16 hour daily) fasting for achieving the Holy Grail of body recomposition.

    As always, things are never as simple as they seem once the details are exposed. A number of serious design flaws, including common ones such as a small sample size (15 participants completed the trial) and short duration (two-week lead-in, six-week treatment periods) plague the quality of the conclusions. The withdrawal of five subjects was a 28 percent dropout rate, which raises the huge question of how different the results might have been if the participants hung in there. The authors noted this was anomalously high compared to the typical dropout rate from feeding studies at their facility, which is roughly 6–7 percent. Statistical outcomes can easily swing either direction due to individual differences in a small sample. Now, let’s take a look at how the key limitation of this trial cripples its validity.

    The most crucial short sight of the investigation was its use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for body composition assessment. In a previous study illustrating its inaccuracy for fasting protocols, Faintuch’s team used BIA to measure body composition changes in non-obese subjects undergoing a 42-day fast, consuming only water, vitamins, and electrolytes (31). BIA registered an unrealistic 32 percent decrease in body fat and an overall gain in lean mass. The researchers themselves concluded that these impossible readings proved that BIA was an inappropriate method for this type of protocol. It’s baffling that Stote chose BIA out of all the available methods given BIA’s woeful track record in fasting research, which is likely attributable to the aggressive water redistribution found in fasting patients. Because we don’t have reliable readings of the study’s critical endpoints, its results are basically worthless.

    Entering Ramadan—keep your eyes on the road

    Ramadan is considered by practicing Muslims to be the most important period of religious observation in the Islamic calendar. In its strictest version, a complete food and fluid fast is undergone from sunrise to sunset (12–16 hours). This routine is carried out daily for a month. Unsurprisingly, traffic accidents peak during this time alongside a reduction in working hours (32). Traffic injuries are the second major cause of death in the United Arab Emirates, with the bulk of the accidents occurring between 8:00 am and 2:00 pm (33). Research consistently shows a decrease in daytime alertness, mood, and wakefulness during the fasting month of Ramadan (32–35). Physical performance—speed, agility, and endurance—declined in professional soccer players observing Ramadan (36). Their performance remained low for two weeks post-Ramadan.

    Fasting and exercise—common effects

    On the heels of caloric restriction

    Caloric restriction (CR), defined as a sustained linear calorie reduction without malnutrition, has a substantive body of animal data supporting its benefits on a number of clinical endpoints. Human data is steadily emerging to validate it. (35–37). Whether or not intermittent fasting (IF) is as effective as CR in humans will be determined by further research, but it appears effective at least in improving HDL levels in women and insulin sensitivity across the board. Whether IF continues to show detrimental effects on glucose tolerance in women remains to be seen. Improvements in insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance (in men at least), body weight/body fat, blood pressure, blood lipids, and heart rate are commonly cited benefits of IF and CR. The question is can exercise achieve the aforementioned cardiovascular/metabolic benefits without the inherent downsides of periodic food deprivation? The scientifically valid answer is yes (40, 41).

    Neuroprotective benefits

    One of the highlighted benefits of IF and CR is the ability to prevent aging symptoms of the brain and nervous system. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of a family of brain-based proteins responsible for the survival and growth of neurons involved with memory and learning. Preventing a decline in BDNF can thus prevent and/or lessen the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. IF and CR have both been found to increase BDNF activity (42). However, few are aware of the fact that exercise has also been demonstrated to elevate BDNF (43), and the degree of effect appears to be intensity dependent (44). In a recent example of this phenomenon, Winter’s team found that in comparison to low impact aerobic running and a period of rest, vocabulary learning was 20 percent faster after high impact anaerobic sprints (45). Ironically, although fasting can have preventive effects on neurodegeneration, its track record in improving human cognition is bleak.

    With all this great data on the common neuro-protective and cardio-protective benefits shared by fasting and exercise, why not combine the two and train in a fasted state? Fasted cardio-respiratory training research has been covered elsewhere (46). The next section will discuss the effects of fasted resistance training.

    Fasted resistance training = not optimal

    Regardless of the inconsistency of performance data on fed versus fasted subjects, the combination of fasting and resistance training has never been a good idea from the standpoint of optimizing protein synthesis and inhibiting protein breakdown.

    Recent research by Baty’s team showed no resistance training performance benefit of a protein-carb solution taken pre-, during, and post-workout (47). However, two indicators of muscle damage were elevated in the fasted training placebo group. Their myoglobin levels approached significance halfway through the exercise bout and were significantly elevated six hours post-exercise. Creatine kinase levels were also significantly elevated 24 hours post-exercise.

    Tipton’s team compared the effect of an immediate pre-resistance training dose of essential amino acids + carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) with the same treatment immediately post-workout (48). Two hundred and sixty-two percent more amino acid uptake was seen in the pre-group compared to the post-group. In a subsequent study, Tipton used a similar protocol with 20 g whey protein only, administered either immediately pre- or immediately post-workout (49). Although no significant differences in protein synthesis were seen, Tipton noted that the study was underpowered to detect differences in such a small sample size. He suggested that a protein-synthetic increase would be seen in the pre-workout treatment if there were approximately double the number of subjects. Also of note is that four of the eight subjects in the pre-group had greater amino acid uptake than any of the subjects in the post-group. Furthermore, it’s highly likely that more protein synthesis would be seen in the pre-group if carbohydrates were taken with the protein, as was the case in Tipton’s previous study.

    Bird’s team saw muscle preserving effects of an EAA+CHO solution ingested during training after a four-hour fast (50). The EAA+CHO treatment suppressed any cortisol increase whereas the fasted group’s cortisol levels rose 105 percent by the end of the training bout. 3-methylhistidine (3MH – an indicator of myofibrillar protein degredation) levels in the fasted group were elevated by 56 percent two days after the exercise bout whereas 3MH levels in the EAA+CHO group were reduced by 27 percent. Apparently, even a partial fast before resistance training can negatively impact muscle protein status.

    Research summary



    Meal frequency

    A haphazard/randomly variable meal frequency, not necessarily a lower frequency, negatively impacts thermogenesis, blood lipids, and insulin sensitivity.
    Within a day, a higher frequency has no thermodynamic advantage over a lower frequency under controlled conditions.
    The majority of controlled intervention trials show no improvement in body composition with a higher meal frequency.
    Studies indicating the disappearance or lack of hunger in dieters occur in either complete starvation or very low calorie VLCD regimes (800 kcal/day or less).
    Hunger is a persistent problem with reduced meal frequency in non-starvation and other protocols with calories above VLCD levels.
    For controlling appetite, the majority of research indicates the superiority of a higher meal frequency.
    The body appears to be “metabolically primed” to receive calories and nutrients after an overnight fast. Breakfast is a particularly beneficial time to have dietary protein because muscle protein synthesis rates are typically lowest at this time.
    Overall, both experimental and observational research points to breakfast improving memory, test grades, school attendance, nutrient status, weight control, and muscle protein synthesis.
    Intermittent fasting

    Animal research has shown a number of positive health effects of ADF and CR.
    Human ADF research is scarce and less consistent than animal research, showing both benefits (insulin sensitivity is the most consistent outcome) and risks (impaired glucose tolerance in women).
    So far, control groups are absent in all human ADF studies. Thus, no comparative conclusions can be drawn between ADF and linear caloric intake.
    The validity of the single published controlled trial to date (17) comparing one versus three meals is heavily confounded by an exceptionally high dropout rate in the one-a-day group and the use of BIA to measure body composition.
    The one-a-day group reported increasing hunger levels throughout the length of the trial, echoing the problem of hunger with a reduced meal frequency seen in other similar research.
    Ramadan fasting (12–16 hours per day, sunrise to sunset) decreases daytime alertness, mood, wakefulness, and competitive athletic performance and increases the incidence of traffic accidents. It’s difficult to determine the relative contributions of dehydration and a lack of food to these adverse phenomena.
    The effect of exercise and meal frequency on body composition is an interesting but largely unexplored area of research.
    Fasting and exercise

    Improvements in insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance (except in women undergoing ADF), body weight/body fat, blood pressure, blood lipids, and heart rate are commonly cited benefits of IF and CR.
    All of the above benefits can be achieved by exercise minus the downsides of fasting.
    IF and CR have both been found to have neuroprotective effects by increasing BDNF levels.
    A growing body of research shows that exercise can also increase BDNF, and the degree of effect appears to be intensity dependent.
    Based on the limited available data, resistance training performance, especially if it’s not particularly voluminous, might not be enhanced by pre-workout EAA+CHO.
    Despite equivocal performance effects of pre- or mid-workout EAA+CHO, it minimizes the muscle damage that occurs from fasted resistance training.
    Immediate pre-workout protein and/or EAA+CHO increases protein synthesis more than fasted resistance training with those substrates ingested immediately post-workout.
    It’s possible that a partial fast (as short as four hours) before resistance training can negatively impact muscle protein status.
    Conclusion

    Personal goals and individual responses are the ultimate navigators of any protocol. Therefore, training and meal schedules should be built upon individual preferences and tolerances, which undoubtedly will differ. However, the purpose of this article is to arm the reader with the facts so that opinions and anecdotes can be judged accordingly. Personal testimony is invariably biased by the powerful placebo effect of suggestion and sometimes by ulterior agenda. Science is perched on one end of the epistemological spectrum and hearsay is on the opposite end. As the evidence clearly indicates, IF is not a bed of roses minus the thorns. There are definite pros and cons.

    In the world of fitness, recommendations for improving performance and body composition often gain blind acceptance despite a dearth of objective data. This is common in a field where high hopes and obsessive compulsive tendencies are united with false appeals and incomplete information. In order to be proven effective beyond the mere power of suggestion, supposed truths must be put through the crucible of science. Drawing conclusions from baseless assumptions are a good way to get nowhere fast.

    References

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    2. Farshchi HR, et al. (2004) Decreased thermic effect of food after an irregular compared with a regular meal pattern in healthy lean women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28(5):653–60.

    3. Taylor MA, Garrow JS (2001) Compared with nibbling, neither gorging nor a morning fast affect short-term energy balance in obese patients in a chamber calorimeter. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25(4):519–28.

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    34. Roki R, et al (2000) Daytime alertness, mood, psychomotor performances, and oral temperature during Ramadan intermittent fasting. Ann Nutr Metab 44(3):101–7.

    35. Roky R, et al (2003) Daytime sleepiness during Ramadan intermittent fasting: polysomnographic and quantitative waking EEG study. J Sleep Res 12(2):95–101.

    36. Zerguini Y, et al (2007) Impact of Ramadan on physical performance in professional soccer players. Br J Sports Med 41(6):398–400.

    37. Fontana L, et al (2004) Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(17):6659–63.

    38. Varady KA, Hellerstein MK (2007) Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials. Am J Clin Nutr 86(1):7–13.

    39. Walfred RL, et al (1992) The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(23):11533–37.

    40. Lakka TA, Laaksonen DE (2007) Physical activity in prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 32(1):76–88.

    41. Carrol S, Dudfeld M (2004) What is the relationship between exercise and metabolic abnormalities? A review of the metabolic syndrome. Sports Med 34(6):371–418.

    42. Mattson MP, Wan R (2005) Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems. J Nutr Biochem 16(3):129–37.

    43. Mattson MP (2000) Neuroprotective signaling and the aging brain: take away my food and let me run. Brain Res 886(1–2):47–53.

    44. Ferris LT, et al (2007) The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(4):728–34.

    45. Winter B (2007) High impact running improves learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem 87(4):597– 609.

    46. Aragon A (2006) Myths under the microscope. At: http://alanaragon.com/myths-under-the- microscope-the-fat-burning-zone-fasted-cardio.html.

    47. Baty JJ, et al (2007) The effect of a carbohydrate and protein supplement on resistance exercise performance, hormonal response, and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 21(2):321–9.

    48. Tipton KD, et al (2001) Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281(2):E197–206.

    49. Tipton KD, et al (2007) Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292(1):E71-6.

    50. Bird SP, et al (2006) Liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion during a short-term bout of resistance exercise suppresses myofibrillar protein degradation. Metabolism 55(5):570–7.
     
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    P-a-n-1-c

    P-a-n-1-c משתמש משקיע

    P-a-n-1-c
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    Eur J Clin Nutr. 1991 Mar;45(3):161-9.
    Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    Influence of the feeding frequency on nutrient utilization in man: consequences for energy metabolism.

    A study was conducted to investigate whether there is a diurnal pattern of nutrient utilization in man and how this is affected by meal frequency to explain possible consequences of meal frequency for body weight regulation. When the daily energy intake is consumed in a small number of large meals, there is an increased chance to become overweight, possibly by an elevated lipogenesis (fat synthesis and accumulation) or storage of energy after the meal. Thirteen subjects, two males and eleven females, were fed to energy balance in two meals per day (gorging pattern) and seven meals per day (nibbling pattern) over 2-day intervals. On the second day on each feeding regimen, the diurnal pattern of nutrient utilization was calculated from simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and urinary nitrogen excretion over 3 h intervals in a respiration chamber. A gorging pattern of energy intake resulted in a stronger diurnal periodicity of nutrient utilization, compared to a nibbling pattern. However, there were no consequences for the total 24 h energy expenditure (24 h EE) of the two feeding patterns (5.57 +/- 0.16 kJ/min for the gorging pattern; 5.44 +/- 0.18 kJ/min for the nibbling pattern). Concerning the periodicity of nutrient utilization, protein oxidation during the day did not change between the two feeding patterns. In the gorging pattern, carbohydrate oxidation was significantly elevated during the interval following the first meal (ie from 1200 h to 1500 h, P less than 0.01) and the second meal (ie from 1800 h to 2100 h, P less than 0.05). The decreased rate of carbohydrate oxidation observed during the fasting period (from rising in the morning until the first meal at 1200 h), was compensated by an increased fat oxidation from 0900 to 1200 h to cover energy needs. In the nibbling pattern, carbohydrate and fat oxidation remained relatively constant during the active hours of the day




    Meal frequency influences circulating hormone levels but not lipogenesis rates in humans.Jones PJ, Namchuk GL, Pederson RA.
    Division of Human Nutrition, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    .

    To determine whether human lipogenesis is influenced by the frequency of meal consumption, 12 subjects were divided into two groups and fed isocaloric nutritionally adequate liquid diets over 3 days, either as three larger diurnal (n = 6) or as six small, evenly spaced (n = 6) meals per day. On day 2 (08:00 h) of each diet period, 0.7 g deuterium (D) oxide/kg body water was administered and blood was collected every 4 hours over 48 hours for measurement of plasma insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels. At each time point, the incorporation of D into plasma triglyceride fatty acid (TG-FA) was also determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry after TG-FA extraction and combustion/reduction. Insulin and GIP levels were elevated over daytime periods in subjects fed three versus six meals per day. Contribution of de novo synthesis to total TG-FA production was not significantly different for days 2 and 3 in subjects consuming three (6.56% +/- 1.32% and 6.64% +/- 2.08%, respectively) and six (7.67% +/- 2.29% and 7.88% +/- 1.46%, respectively) meals per day. Net TG-FA synthesis rates over days 2 and 3 were 1.47 +/- 0.33 and 1.55 +/- 0.53 g/d, respectively, for subjects fed three meals per day, and 1.64 +/- 0.47 and 1.69 +/- 0.30 g/d for subjects fed six meals per day. These findings suggest that consuming fewer but larger daily meals is not accompanied by increases in TG-FA synthesis, despite the observation of hormonal peaks.

    PMID: 7869919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Highlighting the positive impact of increasing feeding frequency on metabolism and weight management.Louis-Sylvestre J, Lluch A, Neant F, Blundell JE.
    Laboratoire de Physiologie du Comportement Alimentaire, UFR Léonard de Vinci, Bobigny, France. [email protected]


    Research on feeding frequency started more than 20 years ago and some studies have shown evidence of nutritional benefits, especially on metabolism and body weight management. Advice on feeding frequency could play an important role in public health policies by reducing levels of overweight and obesity, the prevalence of which has dangerously increased in most countries over the last few decades. The 17th International Congress of Nutrition brought to the forefront the benefits of increasing feeding frequency (i.e. keeping the same total daily energy intake but dividing it into more frequent meals than usual). Recent epidemiological studies, mostly carried out in France, have provided evidence on the beneficial effects of a fourth meal for those individuals who habitually choose this pattern. Supported by metabolic data, these findings have now been supported by experimental studies. The "goûter", commonly eaten in the afternoon in France by most children and many adults, has the biological characteristics of a meal because it is eaten in response to hunger. Suppressing the "goûter" in "habitual fourth meal eaters" soon leads to an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI). Further, people who are regular "goûter" eaters have a higher carbohydrate intake and better metabolic profile than other adults, even though their total energy intake is not greater. Increased feeding frequency leads to a reduction in the total secretion of insulin, an improvement in insulin resistance and a better blood glucose control, as well as an improvement in the blood lipid profile. The experts agreed that, as long as we do not consume more energy than we use up and we only eat when we are hungry, it may be useful to split our total energy intake into as many meals as our social pattern allows. However, the pattern of eating cannot be completely dissociated from the composition of foods consumed. Therefore within this energy intake, we must take care to consume not only a good balance of macronutrients with high carbohydrate and low fat levels, but also ensure that we get an adequate intake of essential micronutrients. "What you eat" and "When you eat it" are public health messages to communicate: frequent consumption of low energy dense high carbohydrate foods, rich in micronutrients, must be encouraged ensuring that energy intakes are not greater than energy expenditures and that eating episodes occur in a hunger state.

    PMID: 15806828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Meal frequency and energy balance.Bellisle F, McDevitt R, Prentice AM.
    INSERM U341, Hotel Dieu de Paris, France.


    Several epidemiological studies have observed an inverse relationship between people's habitual frequency of eating and body weight, leading to the suggestion that a 'nibbling' meal pattern may help in the avoidance of obesity. A review of all pertinent studies shows that, although many fail to find any significant relationship, the relationship is consistently inverse in those that do observe a relationship. However, this finding is highly vulnerable to the probable confounding effects of post hoc changes in dietary patterns as a consequence of weight gain and to dietary under-reporting which undoubtedly invalidates some of the studies. We conclude that the epidemiological evidence is at best very weak, and almost certainly represents an artefact. A detailed review of the possible mechanistic explanations for a metabolic advantage of nibbling meal patterns failed to reveal significant benefits in respect of energy expenditure. Although some short-term studies suggest that the thermic effect of feeding is higher when an isoenergetic test load is divided into multiple small meals, other studies refute this, and most are neutral. More importantly, studies using whole-body calorimetry and doubly-labelled water to assess total 24 h energy expenditure find no difference between nibbling and gorging. Finally, with the exception of a single study, there is no evidence that weight loss on hypoenergetic regimens is altered by meal frequency. We conclude that any effects of meal pattern on the regulation of body weight are likely to be mediated through effects on the food intake side of the energy balance equation.

    PMID: 9155494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
     
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    PcGunMan

    PcGunMan משתמש מתחיל

    PcGunMan
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    אל תעשה לי את הפרצוף הזה!! כי אתה אחד שאוהב קיצורי דרך ולשמוע כזה דבר בהחלט מעודד אותך!
     
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    P-a-n-1-c

    P-a-n-1-c משתמש משקיע

    P-a-n-1-c
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    *נראה שהמקש עם האות ח' נתקע לך. אנא נקה את המקלדת*
    טוב אחי..
    קראת מה שהבאתי בכלל? או שאתה צריך תירגום? :kiss3:
     
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    PcGunMan

    PcGunMan משתמש מתחיל

    PcGunMan
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    אתה יכול לשלוח לי את האתר ממנו העתקת?:nono:
     
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    P-a-n-1-c

    P-a-n-1-c משתמש משקיע

    P-a-n-1-c
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    pubmed
     
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    P-a-n-1-c

    P-a-n-1-c משתמש משקיע

    P-a-n-1-c
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    מריבות לא כאן בבקשה, למרות שאותי זה מגניב, משה קצת רגיש :suicide:
     
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    Mike

    Mike מנהל אתר | לשעבר Moshe מנהל

    Mike
    מנהל
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    אהלן PcGunMan , מצורף להלן מחקר שמראה בבירור שאין שום פעילות של פירור שריר גם לאחר 40 שעות לאחר ארוחת פחממות אחרונה :

    שיהיה אחלה שבוע :victory:
    ד"א אני זוכר שאתה לקוח של יאיר להב , אם הוא עדיין טוען את מה שאמרת , אתה מוזמן להראות לו את המחקרים הללו ולהדפיס אותם אפילו שיעבור עליהם ואשמח לדעת מה הוא הגיב.
     
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    קפטן קקי

    קפטן קקי אורח

    קפטן קקי
    רק אל תשכח לקחת אליו סנביץ', כי אחרת ידפק לך הסדר של הארוחות :81zq:
     

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